目录

6_独立主格

笔记向,文章内容源自视频:英语语法精讲合集 (全面, 通俗, 有趣 | 从零打造系统语法体系)

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非谓语动词对从句简化

在说独立主格之前先复习下非谓语动词对从句的简化:

Because he was invited by the wolf, the rabbit decided to go to the party.

使用非谓语动词简化:

Invited by the wolf, the rabbit decided to go to the party.

Invite这个动作和the rabbit之间是被动关系,所以使用过去分词invited。

独立主格概念

非谓语动词简化从句和独立主格有啥关系,再来看下面这句:

Because the wolf invited him, the rabbit decided to go to the party.

这里就要注意了,后面的主句中主语是the rabbit,前面的原因状语从句中是the wolf,那该怎么简化?

前面的“Because the wolf invited him”可以使用非谓语动词简化,又由于the wolf和invite是主动的关系,所以使用现在分词,所以简化后就是:The wolf inviting him, the rabbit decided to go to the party.

语法上把the wolf称为动词invite的逻辑主语,而这就是“独立主格”中的“主格”。“独立”是因为the wolf 游离于真正的主语the rabbit之外。

独立主格结构对从句的简化

接下来细看一下独立主格结构对从句的简化

  • If the weather permits, the rabbit will go out. 条件状语从句

    The weather permitting, the rabbit will go out.

  • After the work was finished, the rabbit went home. 时间状语从句

    The work finished, the rabbit went home.

  • The rabbit is lying in bed and a carrot is still held in his hand. 这是and引导的并列句,有两个主语,两个动作同时发生,相当于伴随的状况

    The rabbit is lying in bed, a carrot still held in his hand.

独立主格形式

前面说了那么多,实际上只是独立主格的两种形式,实际上它还有很多副面孔,如下:

  • 名词/代词 + 现在分词

  • 名词/代词 + 过去分词

  • 名词/代词 + 动词不定式

    动词不定式表示将要发生的动作

  • 名词/代词 + 名词

  • 名词/代词 + 形容词

  • 名词/代词 + 副词

  • 名词/代词 + 介词短语

示例:

  • 名词/代词 + 动词不定式

    The rabbit to come, the wolf is overjoyed.

  • 名词/代词 + 名词

    Many animals went to the party, some of them rabbits and wolves.

    注意,这里因为是不定代词(短语),后面才能直接跟名词/形容词

  • 名词/代词 + 形容词

    Many animals went to the party, some of them happy.

  • 名词/代词 + 副词

    The rabbit sat on a chair, head down.

  • 名词/代词 + 介词短语

    The rabbit came in, carrot in hand.

以上这些句子除了“名词/代词 + 动词不定式”,它们实际上更像是,包含be动词的独立主格,也就是名词/代词 + be动词的现在分词being,然后再把being省略掉,比如:

  • Many animals went to the party, some of them being rabbits and wolves.
  • Many animals went to the party, some of them being happy.
  • The rabbit sat on a chair, head being down.
  • The rabbit came in, carrot being in hand.

独立主格形式与非谓语从句

独立主格的主要形式还是不能脱离非谓语动词这一概念,

  • 过去分词表示逻辑主语和动作是一种被动,完成的关系
  • 现在分词表示逻辑主语和动作是一种主动,进行的关系
  • 动词不定式表示逻辑主语将要发生的动作
  • 其他的形式更像是省略了现在分词being的一种简化形式

with+宾语+宾补

你可能经常会见到with+宾语+宾语补足语这样的复合结构,其实它就是独立主格结构,比如还是这句:

The work finished, the rabbit went home.

可以直接加上with来表达

With the work finished, the rabbit went home.

也就是说,这个例子里,with是可以省略掉的。通常英语独立主格结构省略with后,甚至也会进一步简化句子结构,比如:

The rabbit came in, with a carrot in his hand.

省略with后进一步简化:

The rabbit came in, carrot in hand. 连冠词a和物主代词his都省略掉了。